Here we consideration, with a little imagination, ways in which you might adapt this unit for your own year level.

Consider whether students can jump further from a standing jump or a frog jump. Direct comparison to determine which is longer.

Each student jumps. Records which jump was further (using markers to enable comparison) and then yes/no questions are asked to determine the most common response for the class.

- Use direct and indirect comparisons to decide which is longer, heavier or holds more, and explain reasoning in everyday language (ACMMG006)
- Answer yes/no questions to collect information and make simple inferences (ACMSP011)

Similar to above, but the students measure their jumps using informal objects. This provides an opportunity to discuss the need for uniform objects (imagine if you wanted to compare each other’s jumps). Count and record the jumps. How could we record the class data? What does the data mean? What would the data look like for other classes (inference).

- Measure and compare the lengths and capacities of pairs of objects using uniform informal units (ACMMG019)
- Recognise, model, read, write and order numbers to at least 100. Locate these numbers on a number line (ACMNA013)
- Choose simple questions and gather responses and make simple inferences (ACMSP262)

Represent data with objects and drawings where one object or drawing represents one data value. Describe the displays (ACMSP263)

Consider whether students get better at jumping over time. Have the student record a jump. Practise jumping for a short period each day and then record the jump distance and weekly intervals. After three jumps (say three consecutive Mondays), students compare their jump data (you could use lengths of string/wool – blue for first jump, red for second, green for third etc). Did students jump further with practice? How can they record this data? What inferences can they make?

Measure the string lengths with informal objects, how much further/less did the student jump from one jump to the next? Show your working (evidence).

- Compare and order several shapes and objects based on length, area, volume and capacity using appropriate uniform informal units (ACMMG037)
- Collect, check and classify data (ACMSP049)
- Create displays of data using lists, table and picture graphs and interpret them (ACMSP050)
- Solve simple addition and subtraction problems using a range of efficient mental and written strategies (ACMNA030)

As Year 2, however the measurement are now able to be made in centimetres.

- Measure, order and compare objects using familiar metric units of length, mass and capacity (ACMMG061)
- Collect data, organise into categories and create displays using lists, tables, picture graphs and simple column graphs, with and without the use of digital technologies (ACMSP069)
- Interpret and compare data displays (ACMSP070)

As at Yr 3, with the additional connection between metric measures (metres and centimetres) and decimal place value notation. ie 123 cm is 1m 23cm. NB measurement should not be used to introduce decimal notation but only introduced once decimal PV is in place.

With this age group, consider the jumping events as these use length to two decimal places only (cm). Using timed events involves students with Base 60 and, if using hundredths (eg running or swimming) or thousandths of seconds (eg kayaking) – this can be quite difficult.

- Use scaled instruments to measure and compare lengths, masses, capacities and temperatures (ACMMG084)
- Recognise that the place value system can be extended to tenths and hundredths. Make connections between fractions and decimal notation (ACMNA079)
- Select and trial methods for data collection, including survey questions and recording sheets (ACMSP095)
- Construct suitable data displays, with and without the use of digital technologies, from given or collected data. Include tables, column graphs and picture graphs where one picture can represent many data values (ACMSP096)
- Evaluate the effectiveness of different displays in illustrating data features including variability (ACMSP097)

Intended year level of document. Be very careful of using events as cautioned in Year 4 notes).

- Choose appropriate units of measurement for length, area, volume, capacity and mass (ACMMG108)
- Recognise that the place value system can be extended beyond hundredths (ACMNA104)
- Compare, order and represent decimals (ACMNA105)
- Pose questions and collect categorical or numerical data by observation or survey (ACMSP118)
- Construct displays, including column graphs, dot plots and tables, appropriate for data type, with and without the use of digital technologies (ACMSP119)
- Describe and interpret different data sets in context (ACMSP120)

As Year 5 with the additional connection between metric measures (metres and centimetres) and decimal place value notation. ie 123 cm is 1m 23cm is 1.23m.

Opportunities to extend the maths for this age would include: average time, proportional reasoning (Is the 200m run in twice the time of the 100m etc).

- Connect decimal representations to the metric system (ACMMG135)
- Convert between common metric units of length, mass and capacity (ACMMG136)
- Solve problems involving the comparison of lengths and areas using appropriate units (ACMMG137)
- Multiply decimals by whole numbers and perform divisions by non-zero whole numbers where the results are terminating decimals, with and without digital technologies (ACMNA129)
- Interpret and compare a range of data displays, including side-by-side column graphs for two categorical variables (ACMSP147)

At all levels where students are constructing data representations (graphs, tables, tallies etc) – there are multiple opportunities to compare these representations and discuss the relative merits of, for example, a stem and leaf plot with a line graph.

We hope you are able to adapt the inquiry,**Record Breaking: Are athletes getting better over time?** , to your own year level.

]]>We hope you are able to adapt the inquiry,

What does the pedagogy of mathematical inquiry mean specifically for teachers and learners? This chapter provides an in-depth overview of the key elements of mathematical inquiry pedagogy, what it looks like in a real year 6/7 classroom (ages 10-13) and provides theoretical connections to highlight important implications for teaching and teacher education.

The idea of exploring the question **Which bubble gum is best?** enthuses students, as they determine the qualities that they value in bubble gum. Benefits of posing mathematical problems through ill-structured questions include opening up ways for students to enter the solution process, providing opportunities for students to negotiate with peers how to address such problems, and presenting a need for students to justify their conclusions using the process they use to answer the question. The inquiry teacher in this chapter mathematises the context of exploring bubble gum to determine which is best and students create mathematical strategies to compare different brands of bubble gum. Four phases provide a framework for teaching and learning mathematics through inquiry: Discover, Devise, Develop and Defend. These phases offer teachers and their students, purposeful ways to navigate mathematically through an inquiry.

The chapter illustrates how one teacher, April Frizzle, conducts an inquiry in her multi-age classroom to find the best bubble gum. Although she initially refers to the experience as "the disaster of the bubble gum experiment!" April reflects on the challenges she has in trying to balance taking control of the lesson, and giving her students the opportunity to develop ways to collect and interpret the data they collect. The author of this chapter is able to summarise the positive experiences that April identifies and how these experiences benefit the learners in April’s classroom the next time they encounter a mathematical inquiry. **What is the best orange?** is a similar inquiry task that the students tackle the following term. It becomes clearer how the struggles from the first inquiry are now beneficial to the teachers and learners and April articulates some transfer between the two units. In particular, April comments on how the inquiry experiences have materialised her students’ beliefs about the nature of mathematics and how that changed the way they were now willing to approach problems.

The final sections of the chapter considers theoretically, how the pedagogy of mathematical inquiry aligns with research on teaching and learning mathematics. These links highlight the importance of**engaging diverse learners in mathematics** and the author refers particularly to a theoretical framework (Harel & Koichu, 2010) that analyses learning through inquiry in three ways: as **struggle**, as **purposeful**, and as providing students with **repeated opportunities to reason in meaningful ways**. Ambiguity in inquiry topics offers a space for students to construct understandings as they **struggle** to reach their mathematical conclusions. Teachers are required to balance letting students construct their understandings with the need to support and scaffold that learning. The relevance of mathematics becomes important to students when teachers successfully mathematise a problem situation. Meaningful contexts help students see a problem as **important to solve** and the openness of inquiry questions lets students see there can be more than one way to solve such problems. **Over time**, engaging with mathematical learning through inquiry presents **repeated opportunities** to apply and build understandings. Students and their teacher in the class described above transferred “met-before” (McGowena & Tall, 2010) mathematical struggles with the bubblegum unit of understanding the need for measurement, to quantitatively measure the qualitative characteristics of oranges.

Bubblegum and oranges surprisingly presented opportunities for Ms Frizzle to negotiate what a**culture of inquiry** meant in her classroom, with her students. This illustration may not reflect the habits and norms in your own classroom and this process requires guidance and explicit support. Consider some of the research on this site on developing a culture of inquiry in your classroom, to help you decide upon what you want your mathematical inquiry classroom to look like.

Summary by Kym Fry

Harel, G., & Koichu, B. (2010). An operational definition of learning. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 29, 115–124.

McGowena, M. A., Tall, D. O. (2010). Metaphor or met-before? The effects of previous experience on practice and theory of learning mathematics. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 29, 169-179.

]]>The final sections of the chapter considers theoretically, how the pedagogy of mathematical inquiry aligns with research on teaching and learning mathematics. These links highlight the importance of

Bubblegum and oranges surprisingly presented opportunities for Ms Frizzle to negotiate what a

Summary by Kym Fry

Harel, G., & Koichu, B. (2010). An operational definition of learning. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 29, 115–124.

McGowena, M. A., Tall, D. O. (2010). Metaphor or met-before? The effects of previous experience on practice and theory of learning mathematics. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 29, 169-179.